The singularities from the general relativity resulting by solving Einstein’s equations were and still are the subject of many scientific debates: Are there singularities in spacetime, or not? Big Bang was an initial singularity? If singularities exist, what is their ontology? Is the general theory of relativity a theory that has shown its limits in this case?
In this essay I argue that there are singularities, and the general theory of relativity, as any other scientific theory at present, is not valid for singularities. But that does not mean, as some scientists think, that it must be regarded as being obsolete.
After a brief presentation of the specific aspects of Newtonian classical theory and the special theory of relativity, and a brief presentation of the general theory of relativity, the chapter Ontology of General Relativity presents the ontological aspects of general relativity. The next chapter, Singularities, is dedicated to the presentation of the singularities resulting in general relativity, the specific aspects of the black holes and the event horizon, including the Big Bang debate as original singularity, and arguments for the existence of the singularities. In Singularity Ontology, I am talking about the possibilities of ontological framing of singularities in general and black holes in particular, about the hole argument highlighted by Einstein, and the arguments presented by scientists that there are no singularities and therefore that the general theory of relativity is in deadlock. In Conclusions I outline and summarize briefly the arguments that support my above views.
– – – Classical Theory and Special Relativity
– – – General Relativity (GR)
1 Ontology of General Relativity
– – – Black Holes
– – – – – – Event Horizon
– – – Big Bang
– – – Are there Singularities?
3 Ontology of Singularities
– – – Ontology of black holes
– – – The hole argument
– – – There are no singularities
The singularities as ontological limits of the general relativity
1970s and 1980s In 1971, Michael Hart created the Gutenberg Project with the aim of digitizing a large quantity of books and creating a virtual library offering a collection of electronic documents for free access. With this project, Hart wanted … Read More
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Different authors have attempted to clarify the aspects of remote action and God’s involvement on the basis of textual investigations, mainly from the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, (Newton, 1999b) Newton’s correspondence with Richard Bentley (1692/93), (Bentley 1693) and Queries that Newton introduced at the end of the Opticks book in the first three editions (between 1704 and 1721). (Newton 1952)
Newton’s action at a distance – Different views
October 24 – 25, 2020, Dubai, UAE Call for Papers International Conference on Big Data, IOT and Blockchain (BIBC 2020) will provide an excellent international forum for sharing knowledge and results in theory, methodology and applications of Big Data, IoT … Read More
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Disciplines Contemporary physics research is divided into various disciplines that study different aspects of the physical world. Field(s) Disciplines Main theories Some concepts Astrophysics and Mechanics Cosmology, Planetology, Plasma Physics, Big Bang Astroparticles Big Bang, Cosmic Inflation, General Relativity, Dark … Read More
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Meta-ethics refers to the part of moral philosophy which analyzes the fundamental concepts of ethics, their epistemological presuppositions and their meaning. It goes hand in hand with normative ethics, the foundations of which it is supposed to define. Meta-ethics, for … Read More
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(William Blake, Europe a Prophecy, etching and watercolor, 23.4 × 16.9 cm, 1794, London, British Museum.) God (inherited from the Latin deus, itself from an Indo-European root * deiwos, “a divinity”, from the base *dei-, “glow, shine”) designates a supreme … Read More
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Time travel is a recognized concept in philosophy and science, but whose scope is highly disputed, giving rise to numerous paradoxes in both philosophy and science. Time travel is considered by some accepted both in general relativity and quantum mechanics, but there is a unanimous consensus that it is not feasible with current technology. (Hawkins 2010) The raised issues are different for the time travel in the past compared to the time travel in the future.
The main disciples of the master are called the Twelve Philosophers and revered in Confucian temples. When Confucianism becomes official doctrine for the recruitment of civil servants under the previous Han, we can already distinguish different currents. Thereafter, two thousand … Read More
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The main concern of the first eugenists, such as Karl Pearson and Walter Weldon of University College London , were the perceived intelligence factors considered to be correlated with the social class. In his speech “Darwinism, Medical Progress and Eugenics”, Karl Pearson equates eugenics with a field of medicine. Some areas of medicine that are not commonly recognized as eugenic affect the human genes background. These include sterilization and surgical techniques that allow the functioning of reproductive organs. Even medicines that do not directly involve reproductive organs can alter the gene pool. Genetic abnormalities in such individuals are thus duplicated, modifying the genetic background. On this basis, such practices are widely accepted as more radical eugenic processes.