Philosophy of Death

In paleontology, the discovery of funeral rites is an important factor in determining the degree of social awakening of a hominid.
This awareness of death is an engine of social cohesion (uniting to resist disasters and enemies) and action (to do something to leave a trace). It is an important element of metaphysical reflection. This is also what gives the symbolic power to acts such as homicide and suicide.
According to Plato, death is the separation of soul and body. Finally freed from his fleshly prison, the immortal soul can freely reach the sky of Ideas, Eternity, the domain of philosophers. (cf. Phaedo)

Philosophy of Death

The Birds World

Birds are among the most extensively studied of all animal groups. Hundreds of academic journals and thousands of scientists are devoted to bird research, while amateur enthusiasts (called birdwatchers or, more commonly, birders) probably number in the millions.
Birds are categorised as a biological class, Aves. The earliest known species of this class is Archaeopteryx lithographica, from the Late Jurassic period. According to the most recent consensus, Aves and a sister group, the order Crocodilia, together form a group of unnamed rank, the Archosauria.
Phylogenetically, Aves is usually defined as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of modern birds (or of a specific modern bird species like Passer domesticus), and Archaeopteryx. Modern phylogenies place birds in the dinosaur clade Theropoda.
Modern birds are divided into two superorders, the Paleognathae (mostly flightless birds like ostriches), and the wildly diverse Neognathae, containing all other birds.

CONTENTS:

Birds
– Alektorophobia
– Avian incubation
– Bird abatement
– Bird anatomy
– – Bird skeleton
– Bird bath
– Bird feeding
– – Bird food
– – Bird feeder
– Bird flight
– – Wing clipping
– Bird intelligence
– – Language of the birds
– Nidification
Aviculture
– Domesticated birds
– – Australian Spotted
– – Barbary Dove
– – Budgerigar
– – Cayuga Duck
– – Chicken
– – Cockatiel
– – Cockatoo
– – Common Pheasant
– – Crested Guineafowl
– – Domestic Canary
– – Domesticated duck
– – Domesticated goose
– – Domesticated turkey
– – Homing pigeon
– – Indian Runner Duck
– – Khaki Campbell
– – Ostrich
– – Pekin duck
– – Quail
– – Rock Pigeon
– – Zebra Finch
– African Grey Parrot
– Bird-safe
– British finches
– Caique
– Carrier pigeon
– Citron-crested Cockatoo
– Companion parrot
– Conure
– Cyanoramphus
– Hawaiian Goose
– Hill Myna
– Kākāriki
– Lilian’s Lovebird
– Long-billed Vulture
– Moluccan Cockatoo
– Parrotlet
– – Khaki Campbell
– Pigeon racing
– Pink Pigeon
– Red-and-green Macaw
– Rose-ringed Parakeet
– Rosy-faced Lovebird
– Senegal Parrot
– Softbill
– Spix’s Macaw
– Sun Parakeet
– Umbrella Cockatoo
Bird migration flyways
– Flyway
– Atlantic Flyway
– Central Flyway
– East Asian – Australasian Flyway
– Mississippi Flyway
– Pacific Flyway
Bird topography
– Beak
– Supercilium
Birds by classification
– Extinct birds
– – (Probably) Extinct birds
– – Late Quaternary prehistoric birds
– – Paleornithology
– – Fossil birds
– – Neornithes
– – Aves incertae sedis
– Suborders of birds
– – Corvida
– – Artamidae
– – Artamus
– – Cracticus
– – Gymnorhina
– – Currawong
– – Atrichornithidae
– – Callaeidae
– – Campephagidae
– – Cinclosomatidae
– – Psophodes
– – Climacteridae
– – Corcorachidae
– – Corvidae
– – Aphelocoma
– – Cissa
– – Corvus
– – Raven
– – Crypsirina
– – Cyanocitta
– – Cyanocorax
– – Cyanolyca
– – Cyanopica
– – Garrulus
– – Nucifraga
– – Perisoreus
– – Pica
– – Podoces
– – Pyrrhocorax
– – Urocissa
– – Dicruridae
– – Drongos
– – Monarchinae
– – Lamprolia
– – Rhipidurinae
– – Tersiphone
– – Icteridae
– – Irenidae
– – Laniidae
– – Malaconotidae
– – Tchagra
– – Maluridae
– – Meliphagoidea
– – Meliphagidae
– – Acanthorhynchus
– – Anthochaera
– – Manorina
– – Moho
– – Philemon
– – Phylidonyris
– – Menuridae
– – Neosittidae
– – Oriolidae
– – Orthonychidae
– – Pachycephalidae
– – Pitohui
– – Paradisaeidae
– – Pardalotidae
– – Pardalote
– – Petroicidae
– – Pityriaseidae
– – Pomatostomidae
– – Prionopidae
– – Ptilonorhynchidae
– – Turnagridae
– – Vangidae
– – Vireonidae
– – Passeri
– – Passerida
– – Aegithalidae
– – Aegithinidae
– – Alaudidae
– – Alauda
– – Chersophilus
– – Eremophila
– – Lullula
– – Melanocorypha
– – Buphagidae
– – Cardinalidae
– – Grosbeak
– – Certhiidae
– – Chaetopidae
– – Cinclidae
– – Cisticolidae
– – Coerebidae
– – Dicaeidae
– – Drepanididae
– – Melamprosops
– – Psittirostra
– – Vestiaria
– – Emberizidae
– – Ammodramus
– – Calamospiza
– – Calcarius
– – Chondestes
– – Emberiza
– – Geospizini
– – Juncos
– – Passerculus
– – Passerella
– – Pipilo
– – Pooecetes
– – Seedeater
– – Spizella
– – Zonotrichia
– – Estrildidae
– – Padda
– – Fringillidae
– – Carduelis
– – Carpodacus
– – Coccothraustes
– – Eophona
– – Euphoniinae
– – Chlorophonia
– – Euphonia
– – Fringilla
– – Leucosticte
– – Loxia
– – Pinicola
– – Pyrrhula
– – Rhodopechys
– – Serinus
– – Hirundinidae
– – Pseudochelidoninae
– – Hypocoliidae
– – Leafbirds
– – Melanocharitidae
– – Mimidae
– – Motacillidae
– – Muscicapidae
– – Ficedula
– – Saxicolinae
– – Cercotrichas
– – Cochoa
– – Copsychus
– – Cossypha
– – Enicurus
– – Erithacus
– – Luscinia
– – Oenanthe
– – Phoenicurus
– – Saxicola
– – Sheppardia
– – Nectariniidae
– – Nuthatches
– – Old World babblers
– – Paradoxornithidae
– – Paramythiidae
– – Paridae
– – Pseudopodoces
– – Parulidae
– – Dendroica
– – Seiurus
– – Vermivora
– – Passeridae
– – Peucedramidae
– – Picathartidae
– – Platysteiridae
– – Ploceidae
– – Polioptilidae
– – Promeropidae
– – Prunellidae
– – Ptilogonatidae
– – Pycnonotidae
– – Regulidae
– – Remizidae
– – Rhabdornithidae
– – Sturnidae
– – Acridotheres
– – Aplonis
– – Gracula
– – Sturnus
– – Sylviidae
– – Acrocephalus
– – Bradypterus
– – Chamaea
– – Hippolais
– – Locustella
– – Orthotomus
– – Phylloscopus
– – Sylvia
– – Thraupidae
– – Cyanerpes
– – Habia
– – Piranga
– – Ramphocelus
– – Spindalis
– – Tangara
– – Thraupis
– – Troglodytidae
– – Campylorhynchus
– – Troglodytes
– – Turdidae
– – Alethes
– – Bluebirds
– – Catharus thrushes
– – Myadestes
– – Rock thrushes
– – Zoothera
– – Viduidae
– – Waxwings
– – Zosteropidae
– – Zosterops
– – Tyranni
– – Acanthisittidae
– – Conopophagidae
– – Cotingidae
– – Cephalopterus
– – Procnias
– – Rupicola
– – Eurylaimidae
– – Calyptomena
– – Formicariidae
– – Furnariidae
– – Furnarius
– – Pseudocolaptes
– – Xenops
– – Philepittidae
– – Pipridae
– – Chiroxiphia
– – Manacus
– – Pitta
– – Rhinocryptidae
– – Thamnophilidae
– – Tyrannidae
– – Aphanotriccus
– – Attila
– – Contopus
– – Empidonax
– – Lathrotriccus
– – Myiarchus
– – Myiozetetes
– – Sayornis
– – Tityra
– – Tyrannus
– Parvorders of birds
– Superfamilies of birds
– – Anatoidea
– Bird families
– – Bird families – A
– – Accipitridae
– – Aegothelidae
– – Aepyornithidae
– – Alcedinidae
– – Alcidae
– – Anhingidae
– – Apterygidae
– – Bird families – B
– – Bucerotidae
– – Bird families – C
– – Caprimulgidae
– – Casuariidae
– – Cathartidae
– – Charadriidae
– – Chionididae
– – Columbidae
– – Bird families – D
– – Dendrocolaptidae
– – Dinornithidae
– – Dromadidae
– – Dromornithidae
– – Bird families – E
– – Bird families – F
– – Falconidae
– – Fregatidae
– – Bird families – G
– – Gastornithidae
– – Bird families – H
– – Haematopodidae
– – Hydrobatidae
– – Bird families – I
– – Ibidorhynchidae
– – Bird families – L
– – Bird families – M
– – Mesitornithidae
– – Bird families – N
– – Bird families – O
– – Bird families – P
– – Pedionomidae
– – Phaethontidae
– – Phalacrocoracidae
– – Phasianidae
– – Phorusrhacidae
– – Picidae
– – Plotopteridae
– – Pluvianellidae
– – Podicipedidae
– – Presbyornithidae
– – Psittacidae
– – Pteroclididae
– – Bird families – R
– – Rallidae
– – Raphidae
– – Rostratulidae
– – Bird families – S
– – Scolopacidae
– – Spheniscidae
– – Strigidae
– – Sulidae
– – Sylviornithidae
– – Bird families – T
– – Teratornithidae
– – Tetraonidae
– – Threskiornithidae
– – Trochilidae
– – Tytonidae
– – Bird families – V
– – Bird families – W
– Subfamilies of birds
– – Bucorvinae
– – Anatinae
– – Anserinae
– – Buteoninae
– – Chordeilinae
– – Mancallinae
– – Merginae
– – Palaeeudyptinae
– – Phaethornithinae
– – Tadorninae
– – Vanellinae
– Tribes of birds
– – Nestorini
– – Platycercini
– Passeriformes
– Carinatae
Birds by geography
– Endemism in birds
– Birds of Africa
– Birds of Asia
– Birds of Australia
– – List of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds
– – List of Australian birds
– Birds of Europe
Birds of prey
– Eagles
– Falconry
– Falcon
– Harrier
– Kites
– Old World vulture
– Owls
– True hawks
Birdwatching
Bird diseases
– Angel Wing
– Avian adenovirus
– Avian flu
– – Transmission and infection of H5N1
– Bumblefoot
– Gallid herpesvirus 1
– Scaly leg
Famous birds
Feathers
– Plumage
Fictional birds
– Fictional ducks
Flightless birds
– Struthioniformes
Heraldic birds
– American Robin
– Andean Condor
– Blue Jay
– Caladrius
– Canada Goose
– Canary
– Cassowary
– Condor
– Double-headed eagle
– Duck
– Emu
– Goose
– Heron
– Ibis
– Kingfisher
– Kookaburra
– Macaw
– Martlet
– Osprey
– Partridge
– Peafowl
– Pelican
– Pheasant
– Puffin
– Rooster
– Secretary Bird
– Snipe
– Spotted Eagle Owl
– Stork
– Swan
– Toucan
– Vulture
Oology
– Egg
– Ornithology
Poultry
Seabird
– Albatrosses
– Gannets
– Gulls
– – Larus
– Pterodroma
– Shearwaters
– Skuas
– Terns
Shorebirds
– Recurvirostridae
– – Recurvirostra
Swifts

The Birds World

Problems with translation

According to the school of thought of target-oriented translation, it is necessary to focus on the accuracy of the remarks at the expense of style, when necessary.

 Most freelance translators, telling that they are specialized in just about everything, contradict the term of specialization. It is obvious that their behavior is looking for maximum translation work.

 A well-known difficulty for translators, but there is little awareness outside of them, is the fact that the text to be translated is often already a translation, not necessarily true, and it must, to the extent possible, to try passing it back to the original.

 For a “smart”, sensible translation, you should forget not the knowledge acquired at school or university, but the corrective standards. Some people want a translation with the touch of the source version, while another people feel that in a successful version, we should not be able to guess the original language.

Problems with translation

Criticism of Falsifiability

Thomas Kuhn criticized falsifiability because it characterized “the entire scientific enterprise in terms that apply only to its occasional revolutionary parts,” and it cannot be generalized. In Kuhn’s view, a delimitation criterion must refer to the functioning of normal science. Kuhn objects to Popper’s entire theory and excludes any possibility of rational reconstruction of the development of science. Imre Lakatos said that if a theory is scientific or non-scientific, it can be determined independently of the facts.He proposed a modification of Popper’s criterion, which he called “sophisticated (methodological) falsification”.

 DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.30572.82568

Criticism of Falsifiability

Easter Celebration

Easter is the most important solemnity (just before Christmas) of the Church. It is the first of the five cardinal feasts of the Catholic liturgical year. Easter commemorates the resurrection of Jesus Christ laid down by the Bible, the third day after his passion. The solemnity begins on Easter Sunday, which for Catholics mark the end of fasting of Lent, and lasts for eight days (Easter week, or week or radiant, or week of eight Sundays).
Many customs dating back to ancient times designed to accommodate the return of spring attached themselves to Easter. The egg is the symbol of germination occurs in early spring. Similarly, the hare is an ancient symbol which has always represented fertility.
The custom of the Easter egg was found among Coptic Christians from the late fifth century, it is perhaps in memory of ardent eggs (ova ignita) with which the martyrs were tortured or red egg laid by an imperial hen the day of the birth of Alexander Severus in 208 BC. The tradition of offering eggs in spring dates back to antiquity: the Persians, the Egyptians offered, as a lucky, decorated hen eggs as renewal sign.
The rabbit once symbolizing fertility and renewal (like spring), it was in Upper Germany where was born the tradition (Osterhase) before it spreads in the Germanic countries. Subsequently, this tradition is exported to the United States by German immigrants in the eighteenth century.

CONTENTS:

Easter
– Date history
– Religious celebrations
– – Catholic Church
– – Orthodox and Eastern Churches
– – Evangelical Church
– Popular festivals and traditions
– Easter eggs
– Easter eggs
– – Symbolic
– – History
– – – The red eggs
– – – Painted eggs, pissanka and precious eggs
– – – Chocolate eggs
– – Games and traditions
– – – Egg hunting
– – – Egg rolling
– – – Egg battles
– Ash Wednesday
– Paschal Triduum
– Easter Water
– – Picking the Easter Water
– – Properties of Easter Water
– – – Physical properties
– – – Spiritual or magical properties
– – Washing in Water Easter
– Paschal candle
– – Rite of fire at Easter
– – Using the paschal candle
– Easter Monday
– – Liturgical and religious significance
– – Folk customs for Easter Monday
– Easter Bunny
– – Origin
– – Alternatives
– Osterbrunnen
Easter food
– Pastiera
– – Origins
– – – Mythical origin
– – – Other origins
– – Tradition
– – Features

MultiMedia Publishing House Edition: https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/easter-celebration/

Easter Celebration

Falsification and refutation

Black SwansA scientific theory, according to Popper, can be legitimately saved from falsification by introducing an auxiliary hypothesis to generate new, falsifiable predictions. Also, if there are suspicions of bias or error, the researchers might introduce an auxiliary falsifiable hypothesis that would allow testing. But this technique can not solve the problem in general, because any auxiliary hypothesis can be challenged in the same way, ad infinitum. To solve this regression, Popper introduces the idea of ​​a basic statement, an empirical statement that can be used both to determine whether a given theory is falsifiable and, if necessary, to corroborate falsification assumptions.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.22162.09923

Falsification and refutation

Isaac Newton vs. Robert Hooke on the law of universal gravitation

Isaac Newton vs. Robert Hooke on the law of universal gravitationOne of the most disputed controversy over the priority of scientific discoveries is that of the law of universal gravitation, between Isaac Newton and Robert Hooke. Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism, of taking over his ideas expressed in previous works. In this paper I try to show, on the basis of previous analysis, that both scientists were wrong: Robert Hooke because his theory was basically only ideas that would never have materialized without Isaac Newton’s mathematical support; and the latter was wrong by not recognizing Hooke’s ideas in drawing up the theory of gravity. Moreover, after Hooke’s death and taking over the Royal Society presidency, Newton removed from the institution any trace of the former president Robert Hooke. For this, I detail the accusations and arguments of each of the parts, and how this dispute was perceived by the contemporaries of the two scientists. I finish the paper with the conclusions drawn from the contents.

Keywords: Isaac Newton, Robert Hooke, law of gravity, priority, plagiarism

CONTENTS

Abstract
Introduction
Robert Hooke’s contribution to the law of universal gravitation
Isaac Newton’s contribution to the law of universal gravitation
Robert Hooke’s claim of his priority on the law of universal gravitation
Newton’s defense
The controversy in the opinion of other contemporary scientists
What the supporters of Isaac Newton say
What the supporters of Robert Hooke say
Conclusions
Bibliography

14.01.2019

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.19370.26567

MultiMedia Publishing EPUB (ISBN 978-606-033-206-0), Kindle (ISBN 978-606-033-205-3), PDF (ISBN 978-606-033-204-6)  https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/isaac-newton-vs-robert-hooke-on-the-law-of-universal-gravitation/

Isaac Newton vs. Robert Hooke on the law of universal gravitation

Blockchain Design and Modelling

Blockchain Design and ModellingOntology engineering, along with semantic Web technologies, allow the semantic development and modeling of the operational flow required for blockchain design. The semantic Web, in accordance with W3C, “provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries” and can be seen as an integrator for various content, applications and information systems. The most widely used blockchain modelling system, by abstract representation, description and definition of structure, processes, information and resources, is the enterprises modelling. Enterprise modelling uses domain ontologies by model representation languages.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.19062.24642

Blockchain Design and Modelling

The distinction between falsification and refutation in the demarcation problem of Karl Popper

The distinction between falsification and refutation in the demarcation problem of Karl PopperDespite the criticism of Karl Popper’s falsifiability theory for the demarcation between science and non-science, mainly pseudo-science, this criterion is still very useful, and perfectly valid after it was perfected by Popper and his followers. Moreover, even in his original version, considered by Lakatos as “dogmatic”, Popper did not assert that this methodology is an absolute demarcation criterion: a single counter-example is not enough to falsify a theory; a theory can legitimately be saved from falsification by introducing an auxiliary hypothesis. Compared to Kuhn’s theory of revolutions, which he himself later dissociated from it transforming it into a theory of “micro-revolutions,” I consider that Popper’s demarcation methodology, along with the subsequent development proposed by him, including the corroboration and the verisimilitude, though imperfect, is not only valid today, but it is still the best demarcation methodology. For argumentation, I used the main works of Popper dealing with this issue, and his main critics and supporters. After a brief presentation of Karl Popper, and an introduction to the demarcation problem and the falsification methodology, I review the main criticisms and the arguments of his supporters, emphasizing the idea that Popper has never put the sign of equality between falsification and rejection. Finally, I present my own conclusions on this issue.

Keywords: Karl Popper, falsifiability, falsification, demarcation problem, pseudo-science

CONTENTS

Abstract
Introduction
1 The demarcation problem
2 Pseudoscience
3 Falsifiability
4 Falsification and refutation
5 Extension of falsifiability
6 Criticism of falsifiability
7 Support of falsifiability
8 The current trend
Conclusions
Bibliography
Notes

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.22522.54725

(28.02.2019)

MultiMedia Publishing EPUB (ISBN 978-606-033-209-1), Kindle (ISBN 978-606-033-208-4), PDF (ISBN 978-606-033-207-7) https://www.telework.ro/ro/e-books/the-distinction-between-falsification-and-refutation-in-the-demarcation-problem-of-karl-popper/

The distinction between falsification and refutation in the demarcation problem of Karl Popper