Philosophy of Death

In paleontology, the discovery of funeral rites is an important factor in determining the degree of social awakening of a hominid.
This awareness of death is an engine of social cohesion (uniting to resist disasters and enemies) and action (to do something to leave a trace). It is an important element of metaphysical reflection. This is also what gives the symbolic power to acts such as homicide and suicide.
According to Plato, death is the separation of soul and body. Finally freed from his fleshly prison, the immortal soul can freely reach the sky of Ideas, Eternity, the domain of philosophers. (cf. Phaedo)

Philosophy of Death

The Birds World

Birds are among the most extensively studied of all animal groups. Hundreds of academic journals and thousands of scientists are devoted to bird research, while amateur enthusiasts (called birdwatchers or, more commonly, birders) probably number in the millions.
Birds are categorised as a biological class, Aves. The earliest known species of this class is Archaeopteryx lithographica, from the Late Jurassic period. According to the most recent consensus, Aves and a sister group, the order Crocodilia, together form a group of unnamed rank, the Archosauria.
Phylogenetically, Aves is usually defined as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of modern birds (or of a specific modern bird species like Passer domesticus), and Archaeopteryx. Modern phylogenies place birds in the dinosaur clade Theropoda.
Modern birds are divided into two superorders, the Paleognathae (mostly flightless birds like ostriches), and the wildly diverse Neognathae, containing all other birds.

CONTENTS:

Birds
– Alektorophobia
– Avian incubation
– Bird abatement
– Bird anatomy
– – Bird skeleton
– Bird bath
– Bird feeding
– – Bird food
– – Bird feeder
– Bird flight
– – Wing clipping
– Bird intelligence
– – Language of the birds
– Nidification
Aviculture
– Domesticated birds
– – Australian Spotted
– – Barbary Dove
– – Budgerigar
– – Cayuga Duck
– – Chicken
– – Cockatiel
– – Cockatoo
– – Common Pheasant
– – Crested Guineafowl
– – Domestic Canary
– – Domesticated duck
– – Domesticated goose
– – Domesticated turkey
– – Homing pigeon
– – Indian Runner Duck
– – Khaki Campbell
– – Ostrich
– – Pekin duck
– – Quail
– – Rock Pigeon
– – Zebra Finch
– African Grey Parrot
– Bird-safe
– British finches
– Caique
– Carrier pigeon
– Citron-crested Cockatoo
– Companion parrot
– Conure
– Cyanoramphus
– Hawaiian Goose
– Hill Myna
– Kākāriki
– Lilian’s Lovebird
– Long-billed Vulture
– Moluccan Cockatoo
– Parrotlet
– – Khaki Campbell
– Pigeon racing
– Pink Pigeon
– Red-and-green Macaw
– Rose-ringed Parakeet
– Rosy-faced Lovebird
– Senegal Parrot
– Softbill
– Spix’s Macaw
– Sun Parakeet
– Umbrella Cockatoo
Bird migration flyways
– Flyway
– Atlantic Flyway
– Central Flyway
– East Asian – Australasian Flyway
– Mississippi Flyway
– Pacific Flyway
Bird topography
– Beak
– Supercilium
Birds by classification
– Extinct birds
– – (Probably) Extinct birds
– – Late Quaternary prehistoric birds
– – Paleornithology
– – Fossil birds
– – Neornithes
– – Aves incertae sedis
– Suborders of birds
– – Corvida
– – Artamidae
– – Artamus
– – Cracticus
– – Gymnorhina
– – Currawong
– – Atrichornithidae
– – Callaeidae
– – Campephagidae
– – Cinclosomatidae
– – Psophodes
– – Climacteridae
– – Corcorachidae
– – Corvidae
– – Aphelocoma
– – Cissa
– – Corvus
– – Raven
– – Crypsirina
– – Cyanocitta
– – Cyanocorax
– – Cyanolyca
– – Cyanopica
– – Garrulus
– – Nucifraga
– – Perisoreus
– – Pica
– – Podoces
– – Pyrrhocorax
– – Urocissa
– – Dicruridae
– – Drongos
– – Monarchinae
– – Lamprolia
– – Rhipidurinae
– – Tersiphone
– – Icteridae
– – Irenidae
– – Laniidae
– – Malaconotidae
– – Tchagra
– – Maluridae
– – Meliphagoidea
– – Meliphagidae
– – Acanthorhynchus
– – Anthochaera
– – Manorina
– – Moho
– – Philemon
– – Phylidonyris
– – Menuridae
– – Neosittidae
– – Oriolidae
– – Orthonychidae
– – Pachycephalidae
– – Pitohui
– – Paradisaeidae
– – Pardalotidae
– – Pardalote
– – Petroicidae
– – Pityriaseidae
– – Pomatostomidae
– – Prionopidae
– – Ptilonorhynchidae
– – Turnagridae
– – Vangidae
– – Vireonidae
– – Passeri
– – Passerida
– – Aegithalidae
– – Aegithinidae
– – Alaudidae
– – Alauda
– – Chersophilus
– – Eremophila
– – Lullula
– – Melanocorypha
– – Buphagidae
– – Cardinalidae
– – Grosbeak
– – Certhiidae
– – Chaetopidae
– – Cinclidae
– – Cisticolidae
– – Coerebidae
– – Dicaeidae
– – Drepanididae
– – Melamprosops
– – Psittirostra
– – Vestiaria
– – Emberizidae
– – Ammodramus
– – Calamospiza
– – Calcarius
– – Chondestes
– – Emberiza
– – Geospizini
– – Juncos
– – Passerculus
– – Passerella
– – Pipilo
– – Pooecetes
– – Seedeater
– – Spizella
– – Zonotrichia
– – Estrildidae
– – Padda
– – Fringillidae
– – Carduelis
– – Carpodacus
– – Coccothraustes
– – Eophona
– – Euphoniinae
– – Chlorophonia
– – Euphonia
– – Fringilla
– – Leucosticte
– – Loxia
– – Pinicola
– – Pyrrhula
– – Rhodopechys
– – Serinus
– – Hirundinidae
– – Pseudochelidoninae
– – Hypocoliidae
– – Leafbirds
– – Melanocharitidae
– – Mimidae
– – Motacillidae
– – Muscicapidae
– – Ficedula
– – Saxicolinae
– – Cercotrichas
– – Cochoa
– – Copsychus
– – Cossypha
– – Enicurus
– – Erithacus
– – Luscinia
– – Oenanthe
– – Phoenicurus
– – Saxicola
– – Sheppardia
– – Nectariniidae
– – Nuthatches
– – Old World babblers
– – Paradoxornithidae
– – Paramythiidae
– – Paridae
– – Pseudopodoces
– – Parulidae
– – Dendroica
– – Seiurus
– – Vermivora
– – Passeridae
– – Peucedramidae
– – Picathartidae
– – Platysteiridae
– – Ploceidae
– – Polioptilidae
– – Promeropidae
– – Prunellidae
– – Ptilogonatidae
– – Pycnonotidae
– – Regulidae
– – Remizidae
– – Rhabdornithidae
– – Sturnidae
– – Acridotheres
– – Aplonis
– – Gracula
– – Sturnus
– – Sylviidae
– – Acrocephalus
– – Bradypterus
– – Chamaea
– – Hippolais
– – Locustella
– – Orthotomus
– – Phylloscopus
– – Sylvia
– – Thraupidae
– – Cyanerpes
– – Habia
– – Piranga
– – Ramphocelus
– – Spindalis
– – Tangara
– – Thraupis
– – Troglodytidae
– – Campylorhynchus
– – Troglodytes
– – Turdidae
– – Alethes
– – Bluebirds
– – Catharus thrushes
– – Myadestes
– – Rock thrushes
– – Zoothera
– – Viduidae
– – Waxwings
– – Zosteropidae
– – Zosterops
– – Tyranni
– – Acanthisittidae
– – Conopophagidae
– – Cotingidae
– – Cephalopterus
– – Procnias
– – Rupicola
– – Eurylaimidae
– – Calyptomena
– – Formicariidae
– – Furnariidae
– – Furnarius
– – Pseudocolaptes
– – Xenops
– – Philepittidae
– – Pipridae
– – Chiroxiphia
– – Manacus
– – Pitta
– – Rhinocryptidae
– – Thamnophilidae
– – Tyrannidae
– – Aphanotriccus
– – Attila
– – Contopus
– – Empidonax
– – Lathrotriccus
– – Myiarchus
– – Myiozetetes
– – Sayornis
– – Tityra
– – Tyrannus
– Parvorders of birds
– Superfamilies of birds
– – Anatoidea
– Bird families
– – Bird families – A
– – Accipitridae
– – Aegothelidae
– – Aepyornithidae
– – Alcedinidae
– – Alcidae
– – Anhingidae
– – Apterygidae
– – Bird families – B
– – Bucerotidae
– – Bird families – C
– – Caprimulgidae
– – Casuariidae
– – Cathartidae
– – Charadriidae
– – Chionididae
– – Columbidae
– – Bird families – D
– – Dendrocolaptidae
– – Dinornithidae
– – Dromadidae
– – Dromornithidae
– – Bird families – E
– – Bird families – F
– – Falconidae
– – Fregatidae
– – Bird families – G
– – Gastornithidae
– – Bird families – H
– – Haematopodidae
– – Hydrobatidae
– – Bird families – I
– – Ibidorhynchidae
– – Bird families – L
– – Bird families – M
– – Mesitornithidae
– – Bird families – N
– – Bird families – O
– – Bird families – P
– – Pedionomidae
– – Phaethontidae
– – Phalacrocoracidae
– – Phasianidae
– – Phorusrhacidae
– – Picidae
– – Plotopteridae
– – Pluvianellidae
– – Podicipedidae
– – Presbyornithidae
– – Psittacidae
– – Pteroclididae
– – Bird families – R
– – Rallidae
– – Raphidae
– – Rostratulidae
– – Bird families – S
– – Scolopacidae
– – Spheniscidae
– – Strigidae
– – Sulidae
– – Sylviornithidae
– – Bird families – T
– – Teratornithidae
– – Tetraonidae
– – Threskiornithidae
– – Trochilidae
– – Tytonidae
– – Bird families – V
– – Bird families – W
– Subfamilies of birds
– – Bucorvinae
– – Anatinae
– – Anserinae
– – Buteoninae
– – Chordeilinae
– – Mancallinae
– – Merginae
– – Palaeeudyptinae
– – Phaethornithinae
– – Tadorninae
– – Vanellinae
– Tribes of birds
– – Nestorini
– – Platycercini
– Passeriformes
– Carinatae
Birds by geography
– Endemism in birds
– Birds of Africa
– Birds of Asia
– Birds of Australia
– – List of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds
– – List of Australian birds
– Birds of Europe
Birds of prey
– Eagles
– Falconry
– Falcon
– Harrier
– Kites
– Old World vulture
– Owls
– True hawks
Birdwatching
Bird diseases
– Angel Wing
– Avian adenovirus
– Avian flu
– – Transmission and infection of H5N1
– Bumblefoot
– Gallid herpesvirus 1
– Scaly leg
Famous birds
Feathers
– Plumage
Fictional birds
– Fictional ducks
Flightless birds
– Struthioniformes
Heraldic birds
– American Robin
– Andean Condor
– Blue Jay
– Caladrius
– Canada Goose
– Canary
– Cassowary
– Condor
– Double-headed eagle
– Duck
– Emu
– Goose
– Heron
– Ibis
– Kingfisher
– Kookaburra
– Macaw
– Martlet
– Osprey
– Partridge
– Peafowl
– Pelican
– Pheasant
– Puffin
– Rooster
– Secretary Bird
– Snipe
– Spotted Eagle Owl
– Stork
– Swan
– Toucan
– Vulture
Oology
– Egg
– Ornithology
Poultry
Seabird
– Albatrosses
– Gannets
– Gulls
– – Larus
– Pterodroma
– Shearwaters
– Skuas
– Terns
Shorebirds
– Recurvirostridae
– – Recurvirostra
Swifts

The Birds World

Easter Celebration

Easter is the most important solemnity (just before Christmas) of the Church. It is the first of the five cardinal feasts of the Catholic liturgical year. Easter commemorates the resurrection of Jesus Christ laid down by the Bible, the third day after his passion. The solemnity begins on Easter Sunday, which for Catholics mark the end of fasting of Lent, and lasts for eight days (Easter week, or week or radiant, or week of eight Sundays).
Many customs dating back to ancient times designed to accommodate the return of spring attached themselves to Easter. The egg is the symbol of germination occurs in early spring. Similarly, the hare is an ancient symbol which has always represented fertility.
The custom of the Easter egg was found among Coptic Christians from the late fifth century, it is perhaps in memory of ardent eggs (ova ignita) with which the martyrs were tortured or red egg laid by an imperial hen the day of the birth of Alexander Severus in 208 BC. The tradition of offering eggs in spring dates back to antiquity: the Persians, the Egyptians offered, as a lucky, decorated hen eggs as renewal sign.
The rabbit once symbolizing fertility and renewal (like spring), it was in Upper Germany where was born the tradition (Osterhase) before it spreads in the Germanic countries. Subsequently, this tradition is exported to the United States by German immigrants in the eighteenth century.

CONTENTS:

Easter
– Date history
– Religious celebrations
– – Catholic Church
– – Orthodox and Eastern Churches
– – Evangelical Church
– Popular festivals and traditions
– Easter eggs
– Easter eggs
– – Symbolic
– – History
– – – The red eggs
– – – Painted eggs, pissanka and precious eggs
– – – Chocolate eggs
– – Games and traditions
– – – Egg hunting
– – – Egg rolling
– – – Egg battles
– Ash Wednesday
– Paschal Triduum
– Easter Water
– – Picking the Easter Water
– – Properties of Easter Water
– – – Physical properties
– – – Spiritual or magical properties
– – Washing in Water Easter
– Paschal candle
– – Rite of fire at Easter
– – Using the paschal candle
– Easter Monday
– – Liturgical and religious significance
– – Folk customs for Easter Monday
– Easter Bunny
– – Origin
– – Alternatives
– Osterbrunnen
Easter food
– Pastiera
– – Origins
– – – Mythical origin
– – – Other origins
– – Tradition
– – Features

MultiMedia Publishing House Edition: https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/easter-celebration/

Easter Celebration

Evolution and Ethics of Eugenics

Evolution and Ethics of EugenicsAs eugenics is defined, it is very difficult to make a clear distinction between science (medicine, genetic engineering) and eugenics as a included field. And to set a line over which genetic engineering should not go further, according to moral, legal and religious norms. If we accept the help of genetics in finding ways to fight cancer, diabetes, or HIV, we also accept positive eugenics as they are defined now. And if we accept genetic screening, and interventions on the unborn baby, or abortion, we also implicitly accept negative eugenics. In addition, at government level, although eugenics are officially denied, it has been legalized in many countries until recently, and is still accepted and legalized, albeit in subtle forms, even these days. The section Introduction defines the term and classification modes. The section History of Eugenics follows eugenics from the ancient period, the introduction of eugenics by Francis Galton, the practice of eugenics as a state policy in various countries, and the present eugenics (liberal eugenics). I then analyze various issues raised by the Ethics of Liberal Eugenics, and I have developed a special section for the Future of Eugenics, focusing on the human genome project. Finally, in the Conclusions, I express my personal views on the current practice of eugenics.

CONTENTS:

Abstract
Introduction
New Eugenics
The Future of Eugenics
Conclusions
Bibliography

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28662.45120

MultiMedia Publishing EPUB (ISBN 978-606-033-215-2), Kindle (ISBN 978-606-033-214-5), PDF (ISBN 978-606-033-216-9) https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/evolution-and-ethics-of-eugenics/

Evolution and Ethics of Eugenics

Isaac Newton vs. Robert Hooke on the law of universal gravitation

Isaac Newton vs. Robert Hooke on the law of universal gravitationOne of the most disputed controversy over the priority of scientific discoveries is that of the law of universal gravitation, between Isaac Newton and Robert Hooke. Hooke accused Newton of plagiarism, of taking over his ideas expressed in previous works. In this paper I try to show, on the basis of previous analysis, that both scientists were wrong: Robert Hooke because his theory was basically only ideas that would never have materialized without Isaac Newton’s mathematical support; and the latter was wrong by not recognizing Hooke’s ideas in drawing up the theory of gravity. Moreover, after Hooke’s death and taking over the Royal Society presidency, Newton removed from the institution any trace of the former president Robert Hooke. For this, I detail the accusations and arguments of each of the parts, and how this dispute was perceived by the contemporaries of the two scientists. I finish the paper with the conclusions drawn from the contents.

Keywords: Isaac Newton, Robert Hooke, law of gravity, priority, plagiarism

CONTENTS

Abstract
Introduction
Robert Hooke’s contribution to the law of universal gravitation
Isaac Newton’s contribution to the law of universal gravitation
Robert Hooke’s claim of his priority on the law of universal gravitation
Newton’s defense
The controversy in the opinion of other contemporary scientists
What the supporters of Isaac Newton say
What the supporters of Robert Hooke say
Conclusions
Bibliography

14.01.2019

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.19370.26567

MultiMedia Publishing EPUB (ISBN 978-606-033-206-0), Kindle (ISBN 978-606-033-205-3), PDF (ISBN 978-606-033-204-6)  https://www.telework.ro/en/e-books/isaac-newton-vs-robert-hooke-on-the-law-of-universal-gravitation/

Isaac Newton vs. Robert Hooke on the law of universal gravitation

About God in Newton’s correspondence with Richard Bentley and Queries in Opticks

solar systemIn Newton’s correspondence with Richard Bentley, Newton rejected the possibility of remote action, even though he accepted it in the Principia. Practically, Newton’s natural philosophy is indissolubly linked to his conception of God. The knowledge of God seems to be essentially immutable, unlike the laws of nature that can be subjected to refining, revision and rejection procedures. As Newton later states in Opticks, the cause of gravity is an active principle in matter, but this active principle is not an essential aspect of matter, but something that must have been added to matter by God, arguing in the same Query of Opticks even the need for divine intervention.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.16732.44162

About God in Newton’s correspondence with Richard Bentley and Queries in Opticks

The new (liberal) eugenics

Despite the Nazi horrors, in 1953 the new eugenics was founded, when Watson and Crick postulated the double helix of DNA as the basis of chemical heredity. In 1961, scientists have deciphered the genetic code of DNA, laying the groundwork for code manipulation and the potential building of new life forms. After thirty years from the discovery of the DNA structure, the experimenters began to carry out the first clinical studies of human somatic cell therapy.
The practice of prenatal genetic tests identifies genes or unwanted genetic markers. Parents can choose to continue pregnancy or give up the fetus. Once the preimplantation genetic diagnosis occurs, potential parents can choose to use in vitro fertilization and then test early embryonic cells to identify embryos with genes they prefer or avoid. Because of concerns about eugenics, genetic counseling is based on a “non-directive” policy to ensure respect for reproductive autonomy. The argument for this counseling service is that we should balance parental autonomy with child’s autonomy in the future. Specialists have not yet given a clear answer to the question of whether these practices should be considered eugenic practices, or if they are moral practices.
DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.28777.95849

The new (liberal) eugenics

Time Travel

Time Travel

Time travel is a recognized concept in philosophy and science, but whose scope is highly disputed, giving rise to numerous paradoxes in both philosophy and science. Time travel is considered by some accepted both in general relativity and quantum mechanics, but there is a unanimous consensus that it is not feasible with current technology. (Hawkins 2010) The raised issues are different for the time travel in the past compared to the time travel in the future.

 DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.29776.76804

Time Travel

Eugenics

EugenicsThe main concern of the first eugenists, such as Karl Pearson and Walter Weldon of University College London , were the perceived intelligence factors considered to be correlated with the social class. In his speech “Darwinism, Medical Progress and Eugenics”, Karl Pearson equates eugenics with a field of medicine. Some areas of medicine that are not commonly recognized as eugenic affect the human genes background. These include sterilization and surgical techniques that allow the functioning of reproductive organs. Even medicines that do not directly involve reproductive organs can alter the gene pool. Genetic abnormalities in such individuals are thus duplicated, modifying the genetic background. On this basis, such practices are widely accepted as more radical eugenic processes.

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.29167.28326/1

Eugenics